Nginx加多个tomcat实现负载均衡,动静分离

一:Nginx+Tomcat的动静分离

所谓动静分离就是通过nginx(或apache等)来处理用户端请求的图片、html等静态的文件,tomcat(或weblogic)处理jsp、do等动态文件,从而达到动静页面访问时通过不同的容器来处理。

nginx处理静态页面效率远高于tomcat,而tomcat擅长动态页面处理,这样一来就能更好的提高并发,处理性能。

页面压力测试

ab -n 1000 -c 200 http://10.10.54.157/index.html

二:具体步骤

//环境介绍
1.主机
centos6.4 IP:10.10.54.157

2.在此主机上安装nginx,及两个tomcat,nginx的反向代理功能可以把用户请求负载到tomcat上
nginx使用80端口,两个tomcat分别使用8080,9080端口
目的:当访问10.10.54.157这台服务器时,静态页面由nginx处理,动态页面由tomcat处理

3.软件下载

wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.4.5.tar.gz
wget http://download.oracle.com/otn-pub/java/jdk/7u51-b13/jdk-7u51-linux-x64.rpm    #jdk提供tomcat运行环境
wget http://apache.dataguru.cn/tomcat/tomcat-7/v7.0.52/bin/apache-tomcat-7.0.52.tar.gz

//安装nginx,并配置nginx支持php

#nginx使用fpm的方式调用php
#php5.4以后版本中已经支持php-fpm,所以只需要在php编译参数里指定--enable-fpm即可
1.编译安装

shell> yum  -y install zlib-devel pcre-devel openssl-devel    #nginx依赖包
shell> tar xvf nginx-1.4.5.tar.gz
shell> cd nginx-1.4.5
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --with-pcre --with-http_stub_status_module --user=apache --group=apache --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_gzip_static_module
shell> make && make install

2.启动nginx

shell> /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

##添加nginx支持php
3.首先为php创建配置文件

shell> cp php.ini-production /usr/local/php/php.ini    
shell> mv /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf.default /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf    
shell> ln -s /usr/local/php/bin/php /usr/bin/

4.配置php-fpm.conf

shell> vi /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf    
--------------------------------    
listen = /var/run/php-fpm.sock   # 使用unix socket    
--------------------------------

5.启动php-fpm

shell> /usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm

//安装JDK

shell> rpm -ivh jdk-7u51-linux-x64.rpm
shell> vi /etc/profile
-----------------------
export JAVA_HOME="/usr/java/jdk1.7.0_51"
export CLASSPATH="$JAVA_HOME/lib:$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib"
export PATH="$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin:$JAVA_HOME/jre/bin:$HOME/bin"
CATALINA_HOME="/usr/local/tomcat"
-----------------------
shell> source /etc/profile
shell> java -version  #显示版本说明成功
java version"1.7.0_45"

//安装多个tomcat
1.解压

shell> tar xvf apache-tomcat-7.0.52.tar.gz 
shell> cp apache-tomcat-7.0.52 /usr/local/tomcat1
shell> cp apache-tomcat-7.0.52 /usr/local/tomcat2
shell> chown apache.apache /usr/local/tomcat1
shell> chown apache.apache /usr/local/tomcat2

【tomcat1 and tomcat2】
2.制作tomcat启动脚本

shell> cp catalina.sh /etc/init.d/tomcat1
shell> chmod +x /etc/init.d/tomcat1 
shell> vim /etc/init.d/tomcat1
shell> chkconfig --add tomcat1

【tomcat1 and tomcat2】
3.tomcat配置用户管理(可以不设置)

shell>cd /usr/local/tomcat1/conf
shell> vim tomcat-users.xml 
-----------------------------------------
  <role rolename="manager-gui"/>
  <role rolename="admin-gui"/>
  <user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="admin-gui,manager-gui"/>   
#用户名和密码都为tomcat
-----------------------------------------

【tomcat1 and tomcat2】
4.重启tomcat

shell> /etc/init.d/tomcat stop
shell> /etc/init.d/tomcat start

//配置nginx.conf实现负载均衡,动静分离

shell> vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

--------------------------------------------------------

user  apache apache;    #用户,tomcat默认首页也要改为apache用户
worker_processes  2;
#error_log  logs/error_nginx.log;
pid        logs/nginx.pid;
events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}
 
http   
{  
          include       mime.types;  
          default_type  application/octet-stream;       
          server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;  
          client_header_buffer_size 32k;  
          large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;  
          client_max_body_size 8m;  
          sendfile on;  
          keepalive_timeout 60;  
          gzip on;  
 
#负载均衡
upstream www_zijian_com {
          server localhost:8080 max_fails=3 weight=1 fail_timeout=60s;
          server localhost:9080 max_fails=3 weight=1 fail_timeout=60s;
        }
 
server
  {
         listen       80;
         server_name  www.zijian.com;            
         index index.jsp index.php index.do index.jsp;
         access_log  logs/www.zijian.com_access_nginx.log;
         error_log logs/www.zijian.com_error.log;
         root  /var/www/nginx;    #nginx默认根目录
    location ~ \.(php|php5)$ {        #支持php
            fastcgi_pass  unix:/var/run/php-fpm.sock;    #php-fpm.sock模块
            fastcgi_index index.php;
            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root/$fastcgi_script_name;
            include fastcgi_params;
            include fastcgi.conf;
            }
    location ~ \.(jsp|do)$ {        #jsp,do等页面交由tomcat处理
            proxy_pass http://www_zijian_com;
            proxy_set_header HOST $host;
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
            }
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$ {
            expires      30d;
            }
}
}

//测试

1.浏览器访问10.10.54.157 默认显示nginx根目录下的index.php页面

2.浏览器访问10.10.54.157/index.jsp 浏览器跳转到tomcat默认首页,在首页点击Server Status页面,并刷新浏览器,可以看到页面在两个tomcat之间切换

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