通用技术 Graylog——日志聚合工具中的后起之秀

日志管理工具总览

国外程序员整理的日志聚合工具的列表:

日志管理工具:收集,解析,可视化

  • Elasticsearch - 一个基于Lucene的文档存储,主要用于日志索引、存储和分析。
  • Fluentd - 日志收集和发出
  • Flume -分布式日志收集和聚合系统
  • Graylog2 -具有报警选项的可插入日志和事件分析服务器
  • Heka -流处理系统,可用于日志聚合
  • Kibana - 可视化日志和时间戳数据
  • Logstash -管理事件和日志的工具
  • Octopussy -日志管理解决方案(可视化/报警/报告)

Graylog与ELK方案的对比

  • ELK: Logstash -> Elasticsearch -> Kibana
  • Graylog: Graylog Collector -> Graylog Server(封装Elasticsearch) -> Graylog Web

之前试过Flunted + Elasticsearch + Kibana的方案,发现有几个缺点:

  1. 不能处理多行日志,比如Mysql慢查询,Tomcat/Jetty应用的Java异常打印
  2. 不能保留原始日志,只能把原始日志分字段保存,这样搜索日志结果是一堆Json格式文本,无法阅读。
  3. 不符合正则表达式匹配的日志行,被全部丢弃。

本着解决以上3个缺点的原则,再次寻找替代方案。
首先找到了商业日志工具Splunk,号称日志界的Google,意思是全文搜索日志的能力,不光能解决以上3个缺点,还提供搜索单词高亮显示,不同错误级别日志标色等吸引人的特性,但是免费版有500M限制,付费版据说要3万美刀,只能放弃,继续寻找。
最后找到了Graylog,第一眼看到Graylog,只是系统日志syslog的采集工具,一点也没吸引到我。但后来深入了解后,才发现Graylog简直就是开源版的Splunk。
我自己总结的Graylog吸引人的地方:

  1. 一体化方案,安装方便,不像ELK有3个独立系统间的集成问题。
  2. 采集原始日志,并可以事后再添加字段,比如http_status_code,response_time等等。
  3. 自己开发采集日志的脚本,并用curl/nc发送到Graylog Server,发送格式是自定义的GELF,Flunted和Logstash都有相应的输出GELF消息的插件。自己开发带来很大的自由度。实际上只需要用inotifywait监控日志的modify事件,并把日志的新增行用curl/netcat发送到Graylog Server就可。
  4. 搜索结果高亮显示,就像google一样。
  5. 搜索语法简单,比如: source:mongo AND reponse_time_ms:>5000,避免直接输入elasticsearch搜索json语法
  6. 搜索条件可以导出为elasticsearch的搜索json文本,方便直接开发调用elasticsearch rest api的搜索脚本。

Graylog图解

Graylog开源版官网: https://www.graylog.org/

来几张官网的截图:

1.架构图

2.屏幕截图

3.部署图

最小安装:

生产环境安装:

Graylog服务器安装

包括四块内容:

  1. mongodb
  2. elasticsearch
  3. graylog-server
  4. graylog-web

以下环境是CentOS 6.6,服务器ip是10.0.0.11,已安装jre-1.7.0-openjdk

1. mongodb

http://docs.mongodb.org/manual/tutorial/install-mongodb-on-red-hat

[root@logserver yum.repos.d]# vim /etc/yum.repos.d/mongodb-org-3.0.repo
---
[mongodb-org-3.0]
name=MongoDB Repository
baseurl=http://repo.mongodb.org/yum/redhat/$releasever/mongodb-org/3.0/x86_64/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
---
 
[root@logserver yum.repos.d]# yum install -y mongodb-org
 
[root@logserver yum.repos.d]# vi /etc/yum.conf
最后一行添加:
---
exclude=mongodb-org,mongodb-org-server,mongodb-org-shell,mongodb-org-mongos,mongodb-org-tools
---
 
[root@logserver yum.repos.d]# service mongod start
[root@logserver yum.repos.d]# chkconfig mongod on
 
[root@logserver yum.repos.d]# vi /etc/security/limits.conf
最后一行添加:
---
*                soft    nproc           65536
*                hard    nproc           65536
mongod           soft    nproc           65536
 
*                soft    nofile          131072
*                hard    nofile          131072
---
 
[root@logserver ~]# vi /etc/init.d/mongod
ulimit -f unlimited 行前插入:
---
  if test -f /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled; then
    echo never > /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled
  fi
  if test -f /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag; then
    echo never > /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag
  fi
---
[root@logserver ~]# /etc/init.d/mongod restart

2. elasticsearch

Elasticsearch的最新版是1.6.0

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/setup-repositories.html

[root@logserver ~]# rpm --import https://packages.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch
[root@logserver ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/elasticsearch.repo
---
[elasticsearch-1.5]
name=Elasticsearch repository for 1.5.x packages
baseurl=http://packages.elastic.co/elasticsearch/1.5/centos
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://packages.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch
enabled=1
---
 
[root@logserver ~]# yum install elasticsearch
[root@logserver ~]# chkconfig --add elasticsearch
 
[root@logserver ~]# vi /etc/elasticsearch/elasticsearch.yml
  32 cluster.name: graylog
 
[root@logserver ~]# /etc/init.d/elasticsearch start
[root@logserver ~]# curl localhost:9200

3. graylog

Graylog的最新版是 1.1.4 ,下载链接如下:

https://packages.graylog2.org/repo/el/6Server/1.1/x86_64/graylog-server-1.1.4-1.noarch.rpm

https://packages.graylog2.org/repo/el/6Server/1.1/x86_64/graylog-web-1.1.4-1.noarch.rpm

[root@logserver ~]# wget https://packages.graylog2.org/repo/el/6Server/1.0/x86_64/graylog-server-1.0.2-1.noarch.rpm
[root@logserver ~]# wget https://packages.graylog2.org/repo/el/6Server/1.0/x86_64/graylog-web-1.0.2-1.noarch.rpm
 
[root@logserver ~]# rpm -ivh graylog-server-1.0.2-1.noarch.rpm
[root@logserver ~]# rpm -ivh graylog-web-1.0.2-1.noarch.rpm
[root@logserver ~]# /etc/init.d/graylog-server start
Starting graylog-server:                                   [确定]
启动失败!
[root@logserver ~]# cat /var/log/graylog-server/server.log
2015-05-22T15:53:14.962+08:00 INFO  [CmdLineTool] Loaded plugins: []
2015-05-22T15:53:15.032+08:00 ERROR [Server] No password secret set. Please define password_secret in your graylog2.conf.
2015-05-22T15:53:15.033+08:00 ERROR [CmdLineTool] Validating configuration file failed - exiting.
 
[root@logserver ~]# yum install pwgen
[root@logserver ~]# pwgen -N 1 -s 96
zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
[root@logserver ~]# echo -n 123456 | sha256sum 
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  -
 
[root@logserver ~]# vi /etc/graylog/server/server.conf
11 password_secret = zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
...
22 root_password_sha2 = xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
...
152 elasticsearch_cluster_name = graylog
 
[root@logserver ~]# /etc/init.d/graylog-server restart
启动成功!
 
 
[root@logserver ~]# /etc/init.d/graylog-web start
Starting graylog-web:                                      [确定]
启动失败!
[root@logserver ~]# cat /var/log/graylog-web/application.log
2015-05-22T15:53:22.960+08:00 - [ERROR] - from lib.Global in main 
Please configure application.secret in your conf/graylog-web-interface.conf
 
2015-05-22T16:25:55.343+08:00 - [ERROR] - from lib.Global in main 
Please configure application.secret in your conf/graylog-web-interface.conf
 
[root@logserver ~]# pwgen -N 1 -s 96
yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
[root@logserver ~]# vi /etc/graylog/web/web.conf
---
2 graylog2-server.uris="http://127.0.0.1:12900/"
12 application.secret="yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy"
---
 
注意:/etc/graylog/web/web.conf中的graylog2-server.uris值必须与/etc/graylog/server/server.conf中的rest_listen_uri一致
---
36 rest_listen_uri = http://127.0.0.1:12900/
---
[root@logserver ~]# /etc/init.d/graylog-web start

浏览器中输入url: http://10.0.0.11:9000/ 可以进入graylog登录页,
管理员帐号/密码: admin/123456

4. 添加日志收集器

以admin登录http://10.0.0.11:9000/

4.1 进入 System > Inputs > Inputs in Cluster > Raw/Plaintext TCP | Launch new input
取名"tcp 5555" 完成创建

任何安装nc的Linux机器上执行:

echo `date` | nc 10.0.0.11 5555

浏览器的http://10.0.0.11:9000/登录后首页 ,点击第三行绿色搜索按钮,看到一条新消息:

Timestamp Source Message
2015-05-22 08:49:15.280 10.0.0.157 2015年 05月 22日 星期五 16:48:28 CST

说明安装已成功!!

4.2 进入 System > Inputs > Inputs in Cluster > GELF HTTP | Launch new input
取名"http 12201" 完成创建
任何安装curl的Linux机器上执行:

curl -XPOST http://10.0.0.11:12201/gelf  -p0 -d '{"short_message":"Hello there", "host":"example.org", "facility":"test", "_foo":"bar"}'

浏览器的http://10.0.0.11:9000/登录后首页 ,点击第三行绿色搜索按钮,看到一条新消息:

Timestamp Source Message
2015-05-22 08:49:15.280 10.0.0.157 Hello there

说明GELF HTTP Input设置成功!!

5. 时区和高亮设置

admin帐号的时区:

[root@logserver ~]# vi /etc/graylog/server/server.conf
---
30 root_timezone = Asia/Shanghai
---
[root@logserver ~]# /etc/init.d/graylog-server restart

其他帐号的默认时区:

[root@logserver ~]# vi /etc/graylog/web/web.conf
---
18 timezone="Asia/Shanghai"
---
[root@logserver ~]# /etc/init.d/graylog-web restart

允许查询结果高亮:

[root@logserver ~]# vi /etc/graylog/server/server.conf
---
147 allow_highlighting = true
---
[root@logserver ~]# /etc/init.d/graylog-server restart

使用http协议发送:

http://docs.graylog.org/en/1.1/pages/sending_data.html#gelf-via-http

curl -XPOST http://graylog.example.org:12202/gelf -p0 -d '{"short_message":"Hello there", "host":"example.org", "facility":"test", "_foo":"bar"}'

使用tcp协议发送

http://docs.graylog.org/en/1.1/pages/sending_data.html#raw-plaintext-inputs

echo "hello, graylog" | nc graylog.example.org 5555

结合inotifywait收集nginx日志

gather-nginx-log.sh

#!/bin/bash
app=nginx
node=$HOSTNAME
log_file=/var/log/nginx/nginx.log
graylog_server_ip=10.0.0.11
graylog_server_port=12201
 
while inotifywait -e modify $log_file; do
    last_size=`cat ${app}.size`
    curr_size=`stat -c%s $log_file`
    echo $curr_size > ${app}.size
    count=`echo "$curr_size-$last_size" | bc`
    python read_log.py $log_file ${last_size} $count | sed 's/"/\\\\\"/g' > ${app}.new_lines
    while read line
    do
        if echo "$line" | grep "^20[0-9][0-9]-[0-1][0-9]-[0-3][0-9]" > /dev/null; then
            seconds=`echo "$line" | cut -d ' ' -f 6`
            spend_ms=`echo "${seconds}*1000/1" | bc`
            http_status=`echo "$line" | cut -d ' ' -f 2`
            echo "http_status -- $http_status"
            prefix_number=${http_status:0:1}
            if [ "$prefix_number" == "5" ]; then
                level=3 #ERROR
            elif [ "$prefix_number" == "4" ]; then
                level=4 #WARNING
            elif [ "$prefix_number" == "3" ]; then
                level=5 #NOTICE
            elif [ "$prefix_number" == "2" ]; then
                level=6 #INFO
            elif [ "$prefix_number" == "1" ]; then
                level=7 #DEBUG
            fi
            echo "level -- $level"
            curl -XPOST http://${graylog_server_ip}:${graylog_server_port}/gelf -p0 -d "{\"short_mess
sage\":\"$line\", \"host\":\"${app}\", \"level\":${level}, \"_node\":\"${node}\", \"_spend_msecs\":$
{spend_ms}, \"_http_status\":${http_status}}"
            echo "gathered -- $line"
        fi
    done < ${app}.new_lines
done

read_log.py

#!/usr/bin/python
#coding=utf-8
import sys
import os
 
if len(sys.argv) < 4:
  print "Usage: %s /path/of/log/file print_from count" % (sys.argv[0])
  print "Example: %s /var/log/syslog 90000 100" % (sys.argv[0])
  sys.exit(1)
 
filename = sys.argv[1]
if (not os.path.isfile(filename)):
  print "%s not existing!!!" % (filename)
  sys.exit(1)
 
filesize = os.path.getsize(filename)
 
position = int(sys.argv[2])
if (filesize < position):
  print "log file may cut by logrotate.d, print log from begin!" % (position,filesize)
  position = 0
 
count = int(sys.argv[3])
fo = open(filename, "r")
 
fo.seek(position, 0)
content = fo.read(count)
print content.strip()
 
# Close opened file
fo.close()

5秒一次收集iotop日志,找出高速读写磁盘的进程

#!/bin/bash
app=iotop
node=$HOSTNAME
graylog_server_ip=10.0.0.11
graylog_server_port=12201
 
while true; do
    sudo /usr/sbin/iotop -b -o -t -k -q -n2 | sed 's/"/\\\\\"/g' > /dev/shm/graylog_client.${app}.new_lines
    while read line; do
        if echo "$line" | grep "^[0-2][0-9]:[0-5][0-9]:[0-5][0-9]" > /dev/null; then
            read -a WORDS <<< $line
            epoch_seconds=`date --date="${WORDS[0]}" +%s.%N`
            pid=${WORDS[1]}
            read_float_kps=${WORDS[4]}
            read_int_kps=${read_float_kps%.*}
            write_float_kps=${WORDS[6]}
            write_int_kps=${write_float_kps%.*}
 
            command=${WORDS[12]}
            if [ "$command" == "bash" ] && (( ${#WORDS[*]} > 13 )); then
                pname=${WORDS[13]}
            elif [ "$command" == "java" ] && (( ${#WORDS[*]} > 13 )); then
                arg0=${WORDS[13]} 
                pname=${arg0#*=}
            else
                pname=$command
            fi
 
            curl --connect-timeout 1 -s -XPOST http://${graylog_server_ip}:${graylog_server_port}/gelf -p0 -d "{\"timestamp\":$epoch_seconds, \"short_message\":\"${line::200}\", \"full_message\":\"$line\", \"host\":\"${app}\", \"_node\":\"${node}\", \"_pid\":${pid}, \"_read_kps\":${read_int_kps}, \"_write_kps\":${write_int_kps}, \"_pname\":\"${pname}\"}"
        fi 
    done < /dev/shm/graylog_client.${app}.new_lines
    sleep 4 
done

收集android app日志

device.env

export device=4b13c85c
export app=com.tencent.mm
export filter="\( I/ServerAsyncTask2(\| W/\| E/\)"
 
export graylog_server_ip=10.0.0.11
export graylog_server_port=12201

adblog.sh

#!/bin/bash
. ./device.env
adb -s $device logcat -v time *:I | tee -a adb.log

gather-androidapp-log.sh

#!/bin/bash
. ./device.env
log_file=./adb.log
node=$device
 
if [ ! -f $log_file ]; then
    echo $log_file not exist!!
    echo 0 > ${app}.size
    exit 1
fi
 
if [ ! -f ${app}.size ]; then
    curr_size=`stat -c%s $log_file`
    echo $curr_size > ${app}.size
fi
while inotifywait -qe modify $log_file > /dev/null; do
    last_size=`cat ${app}.size`
    curr_size=`stat -c%s $log_file`
    echo $curr_size > ${app}.size
    pids=`./getpids.py $app $device`
    if [ "$pids" == "" ]; then
        continue
    fi
    count=`echo "$curr_size-$last_size" | bc`
    python read_log.py $log_file ${last_size} $count | grep "$pids" | sed 's/"/\\\\\"/g' | sed 's/\t/    /g' > ${app}.new_lines
    #echo "${app}.new_lines lines: `wc -l ${app}.new_lines`"
    while read line
    do
        if echo "$line" | grep "$filter" > /dev/null; then
            priority=${line:19:1}
            if [ "$priority" == "F" ]; then
                level=1 #ALERT
            elif [ "$priority" == "E" ]; then
                level=3 #ERROR
            elif [ "$priority" == "W" ]; then
                level=4 #WARNING
            elif [ "$priority" == "I" ]; then
                level=6 #INFO
            fi 
            #echo "level -- $level"
            curl -XPOST http://${graylog_server_ip}:${graylog_server_port}/gelf -p0 -d "{\"short_message\":\"$line\", \"host\":\"${app}\", \"level\":${level}, \"_node\":\"${node}\"}"
            echo "GATHERED -- $line"
        #else
            #echo "ignored -- $line"
        fi 
    done < ${app}.new_lines
done

get_pids.py

#!/usr/bin/python
import sys
import os
import commands
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    if len(sys.argv) != 3:
        print sys.argv[0]+" packageName device"
        sys.exit()
    device = sys.argv[2]
    cmd = "adb -s "+device+" shell ps | grep "+sys.argv[1]+" | cut -c11-15"
    output = commands.getoutput(cmd)
    if output == "":
        sys.exit()
    originpids = output.split("\n")
    strippids = map((lambda pid: int(pid,10)), originpids)
    pids = map((lambda pid: "%5d" %pid), strippids)
    pattern = "\(("+")\|(".join(pids)+")\)"
    print pattern

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